Home Secretary Suella Braverman says the new Public Order Bill being put to MPs this week will stop demonstrators holding the public “to ransom”.
But activists said they would not be intimidated by law changes aimed at “silencing non-violent people”.
More than 350 Just Stop Oil protesters – demanding halts to all new oil and gas licences and consents – have been arrested in London since the start of October, according to Home Office figures.
The new legislation – which will be put to MPs next week – will also see jail sentences of up to six months or unlimited fines for protesters accused of “locking-on” to people, objects or buildings.
It would create a new criminal offence of interfering with infrastructure, which would carry sentences of up to 12 months in prison.
In addition, police will be given new powers to take a more “proactive” approach to some protests.